A Helpful Guide to Understanding Early Childhood Mental Health

Infant, toddler, and preschool mental health, collectively early childhood mental health, focuses on the emotional and psychological well-being of young children from birth to age five. This period is vital for establishing the foundations of healthy development and future mental health, including friendship skills, conflict resolution, problem-solving, positive coping mechanisms, and emotional awareness. 

Important Pieces of the Early Childhood Mental Health Puzzle

Many factors play a role in the development of early childhood mental well-being.

1. Attachment and Bonding

  • Secure Attachment: Developing a strong emotional bond with primary caregivers is essential. Secure attachment fosters a sense of safety and security, which is crucial for healthy emotional and social development as well as cognitive development. 

2. Emotional Regulation

  • Developing Skills: Learning to manage and express emotions appropriately is a fundamental skill developed in early childhood. Caregivers play a critical role in modeling and teaching these skills. The Discovery Source Pyramid Model Kit is packed full of resources to support emotional regulation!

3. Social Development

  • Interaction with Peers: Early social interactions with peers are important for learning cooperation, empathy, and conflict resolution. Preschool settings often provide the first opportunities for structured socialization and acquiring friendship skills.
  • Learning through Play: Play is a critical component of social development, allowing children to explore, experiment, and understand social norms and roles.

4. Cognitive Development

  • Language and Communication: Early language development is closely linked to emotional and social skills. Effective communication helps children express their needs and emotions. The Emotional Literacy Kit provides vocabulary and pictures to help children healthily express their emotions.
  • Learning and Problem-Solving: Cognitive development during early childhood lays the groundwork for later academic success. While their brains develop rapidly, young children benefit from targeted social-emotional supports and strategies to support their growth.

5. Impact of Trauma and Adversity

  • Exposure to Trauma: Early exposure to trauma, such as abuse, neglect, or other experiences, can have long-lasting effects on mental health. Early intervention and supportive caregiving are crucial for mitigating these effects. The Calming Kit was designed with a trauma-informed approach to support young children.
  • Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs): Research shows that ACEs can lead to a higher risk of mental health issues, substance abuse, and physical health problems in later life. It is critical for teachers and caregivers to understand ACEs and how to support children with these experiences. 

6. Role of Teachers and Caregivers

  • Teacher/Provider Mental Health: The mental health of teachers and providers significantly impacts a child’s well-being. Stress management training, adequate time off, and access to health services are a few ways administrators can support teachers and caregivers. Taking care of themselves is necessary before they can support the children in their care.
  • Positive Practices: Consistent, nurturing, and responsive interactions foster a secure environment for young children. Safety and security are the foundation for learning and development.

7. Early Intervention and Support Services

  • Educational Support: Preschool programs that incorporate social-emotional learning and provide support for children with developmental delays can enhance mental health outcomes. This study on the Pyramid Model from Wisconsin discusses how implementing targeted social-emotional strategies can reduce challenging behaviors and support children’s overall well-being.

Resources for Further Information


Early childhood mental health is a foundation for lifelong well-being and resilience. By understanding the importance of early mental health, learning about adverse childhood experiences, identifying challenges, and implementing strategies to promote positive outcomes, caregivers and educators can support children in developing the emotional skills and resilience needed to thrive. Together, we can nurture little minds and equip today’s kiddos to be successful tomorrow. 

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